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I don't think we get any money for any government holidays, at least I know I don't. Only if you take a job on the weekends.
Depends on the agency.
Some I do; some I don't.
Good question. I charge extra for weekends and holidays. A case could be made for including Veterans Day as a holiday because there's no mail, no school, and my pharmacy was closed today, too. Don't remember if I've worked on Veterans Day or if I used the holiday surcharge. Same question for MLK Day. I remember working at a law firm that was closed that day. Don't think I surcharged but should have. It was weird working there that day with no office staff around and no coffee.